# Source code for dit.algorithms.lattice

```
# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
"""
Some algorithms related to lattices.
Here we are concerned with determining random variable induced sigma-algebras.
That is, we want to know the subsigma-algebra (of the underlying sigma-algebra)
that corresponds to a random variable. However, we consider only those random
variables that map outcomes in the underlying sigma-algebra to a projection of
that outcome. For example, if an outcome in the underlying sigma-algebra is
(1,2,3), then random variable `X_1` would take on the value (2,) and the joint
random variable `X_0,X_2` has the value (1,2). By considering all possible
induced sigma-algebras, we are equivalently considering all possible partitions
of the sample space.
Relationship to Intersection Information based on Common Randomness
--------------------------------------------------------------------
In general, the meet and join operators are defined with respect to information
equivalence, which in turn, derives from the notions of informationally
richer/poorer. In this module, richer and poorer correspond to refinements and
coarsenings of the sample space and thus, depend explicitly on the structure
of the underlying sigma-algebra.
As an example, consider the r.v.s. X and Y, where X = 1 and Y = X with p=1 and
Y = 0 with p=0. There is a sense in X and Y have the same distribution. However,
X and Y are not informationally equivalent as there is a function f such that
X = f(Y) where f maps 0 and 1 to 1, but not the other way around. One imagines
X as the coarsest possible partition of the sample space, whereas Y is a
refinement. To wit, the sample space is {10,11} with p(10) = 0 and p(11) = 1.
Then X corresponds to the partition: {(10, 11)} while Y is {(10,), (11,)}.
In [1], richer and poorer are defined in terms of probability almost surely.
That is, X is informationally poorer than Y if X = f(Y) almost surely. This
means that the definition is not as sensitive to the structure of the
underlying sigma-algebra. In the above example, X and Y are now informationally
equivalent, even though Y is a refinement of the partition corresponding to X.
In general, there is a trend that coarser partitions correspond to
informationally poorer random variables (but due to the partial ordering, not
all partitions are comparable to one another). In [1], a (comparable) coarser
partition is only poorer if the coarsening involves outcomes with nonzero
probability. Said another way, a r.v. that corresponds to a refinement of
another r.v. is informationally richer only if it refines outcomes which have
nonzero probability.
If the behavior of [1] is desired, one must make sure to prune the sample space
of any outcomes that have zero probability. Then, the implementation here will
give the same results as [1].
[1] "Intersection Information based on Common Randomness"
http://arxiv.org/abs/1310.1538
"""
from collections import defaultdict
from six.moves import map, range, zip # pylint: disable=redefined-builtin
import dit
from ..helpers import parse_rvs, RV_MODES
from ..math import sigma_algebra, atom_set
from ..utils import quasilexico_key
def sigma_algebra_sort(sigalg):
"""
Put the sigma algebra in quasi-lexicographical order.
"""
sigalg = [tuple(sorted(cet)) for cet in sigalg]
sigalg.sort(key=quasilexico_key)
return sigalg
def induced_sigalg(dist, rvs, rv_mode=None):
"""
Returns the induced sigma-algebra of the random variable defined by `rvs`.
Parameters
----------
dist : Distribution
The distribution which defines the base sigma-algebra.
rvs : list
The indexes of the random variable used to calculate the induced
sigma algebra.
rv_mode : str, None
Specifies how to interpret the elements of `rvs`. Valid options are:
{'indices', 'names'}. If equal to 'indices', then the elements of
`rvs` are interpreted as random variable indices. If equal to 'names',
the the elements are interpreted as random variable names. If `None`,
then the value of `dist._rv_mode` is consulted.
Returns
-------
F : frozenset of frozensets
The induced sigma-algebra.
"""
# This is brute force and ugly.
#
# Implementation:
# 1) Find induced atoms from atoms of new sigma-algebra:
# X^{-1}(A) = { w : X(w) \in A }
# where A = \{a\} and a is a nonzero outcome in the marginal.
# 2) Generate sigma algebra from induced atoms.
#
# Step 2 may not be necessary.
#
indexes = parse_rvs(dist, rvs, rv_mode=rv_mode, unique=True, sort=True)[1]
# This creates a mapping from new outcomes (defined by rvs) to the
# original outcomes which map to those new outcomes. This defines a
# partition of the original outcomes.
d = defaultdict(list)
ctor = dist._outcome_ctor
for outcome, _ in dist.zipped(mode='atoms'):
# Build a list of inner outcomes. "c" stands for "constructed".
# We need to iterate over all atoms, not just those in pmf since
# we are trying to partition the sample space.
c_outcome = ctor([outcome[i] for i in indexes])
d[c_outcome].append(outcome)
atoms = frozenset(map(frozenset, d.values()))
F = sigma_algebra(atoms)
return F
def join_sigalg(dist, rvs, rv_mode=None):
"""
Returns the sigma-algebra of the join of random variables defined by `rvs`.
Parameters
----------
dist : Distribution
The distribution which defines the base sigma-algebra.
rvs : list
A list of lists. Each list specifies a random variable to be
joined with the other lists. Each random variable can defined as a
series of unique indexes. Multiple random variables can use the same
index. For example, [[0,1],[1,2]].
rv_mode : str, None
Specifies how to interpret the elements of `rvs`. Valid options are:
{'indices', 'names'}. If equal to 'indices', then the elements of
`rvs` are interpreted as random variable indices. If equal to 'names',
the the elements are interpreted as random variable names. If `None`,
then the value of `dist._rv_mode` is consulted.
Returns
-------
jsa : frozenset of frozensets
The induced sigma-algebra of the join.
"""
# We require unique indexes within each random variable and want the
# indexes in distribution order. We don't need the names.
parse = lambda rv: parse_rvs(dist, rv, rv_mode=rv_mode,
unique=False, sort=True)[1]
indexes = [parse(rv) for rv in rvs]
sigalgs = [induced_sigalg(dist, rv, rv_mode=RV_MODES.INDICES)
for rv in indexes]
# \sigma( X join Y ) = \sigma( \sigma(X) \cup \sigma(Y) )
# Union all the sigma algebras.
union_sa = frozenset().union(*sigalgs)
jsa = sigma_algebra(union_sa)
return jsa
def meet_sigalg(dist, rvs, rv_mode=None):
"""
Returns the sigma-algebra of the meet of random variables defined by `rvs`.
Parameters
----------
dist : Distribution
The distribution which defines the base sigma-algebra.
rvs : list
A list of lists. Each list specifies a random variable to be
met with the other lists. Each random variable can defined as a
series of unique indexes. Multiple random variables can use the same
index. For example, [[0,1],[1,2]].
rv_mode : str, None
Specifies how to interpret the elements of `rvs`. Valid options are:
{'indices', 'names'}. If equal to 'indices', then the elements of
`rvs` are interpreted as random variable indices. If equal to 'names',
the the elements are interpreted as random variable names. If `None`,
then the value of `dist._rv_mode` is consulted.
Returns
-------
msa : frozenset of frozensets
The induced sigma-algebra of the meet.
"""
# We require unique indexes within each random variable and want the
# indexes in distribution order. We don't need the names.
parse = lambda rv: parse_rvs(dist, rv, rv_mode=rv_mode,
unique=False, sort=True)[1]
indexes = [parse(rv) for rv in rvs]
sigalgs = [induced_sigalg(dist, rv, rv_mode=RV_MODES.INDICES)
for rv in indexes]
# \sigma( X meet Y ) = \sigma(X) \cap \sigma(Y) )
# Intersect all the sigma algebras.
first_sa = sigalgs[0]
msa = first_sa.intersection(*sigalgs[1:])
return msa
def dist_from_induced_sigalg(dist, sigalg, int_outcomes=True):
"""
Returns the distribution associated with an induced sigma algebra.
The sigma algebra is induced by a random variable from a probability
space defined by `dist`.
Parameters
----------
dist : Distribution
The distribution which defines the base sigma-algebra.
sigalg : frozenset
A sigma-algebra induced by a random variable from `dist`.
int_outcomes : bool
If `True`, then the outcomes of the induced distribution are relabeled
as integers instead of the atoms of the induced sigma-algebra.
Returns
-------
d : ScalarDistribution
The distribution of the induced sigma algebra.
"""
from dit import ScalarDistribution
atoms = atom_set(sigalg)
if int_outcomes:
atoms = [sorted(atom) for atom in atoms]
atoms.sort(key=quasilexico_key)
pmf = [dist.event_probability(atom) for atom in atoms]
if int_outcomes:
outcomes = range(len(atoms))
else:
# Outcomes must be sequences.
outcomes = [tuple(sorted(atom)) for atom in atoms]
d = ScalarDistribution(outcomes, pmf, base=dist.get_base())
return d
[docs]def join(dist, rvs, rv_mode=None, int_outcomes=True):
"""
Returns the distribution of the join of random variables defined by `rvs`.
Parameters
----------
dist : Distribution
The distribution which defines the base sigma-algebra.
rvs : list
A list of lists. Each list specifies a random variable to be
joined with the other lists. Each random variable can defined as a
series of unique indexes. Multiple random variables can use the same
index. For example, [[0,1],[1,2]].
rv_mode : str, None
Specifies how to interpret the elements of `rvs`. Valid options are:
{'indices', 'names'}. If equal to 'indices', then the elements of
`rvs` are interpreted as random variable indices. If equal to 'names',
the the elements are interpreted as random variable names. If `None`,
then the value of `dist._rv_mode` is consulted.
int_outcomes : bool
If `True`, then the outcomes of the join are relabeled as integers
instead of as the atoms of the induced sigma-algebra.
Returns
-------
d : ScalarDistribution
The distribution of the join.
"""
join_sa = join_sigalg(dist, rvs, rv_mode)
d = dist_from_induced_sigalg(dist, join_sa, int_outcomes)
return d
[docs]def meet(dist, rvs, rv_mode=None, int_outcomes=True):
"""
Returns the distribution of the meet of random variables defined by `rvs`.
Parameters
----------
dist : Distribution
The distribution which defines the base sigma-algebra.
rvs : list
A list of lists. Each list specifies a random variable to be
met with the other lists. Each random variable can defined as a
series of unique indexes. Multiple random variables can use the same
index. For example, [[0,1],[1,2]].
rv_mode : str, None
Specifies how to interpret the elements of `rvs`. Valid options are:
{'indices', 'names'}. If equal to 'indices', then the elements of
`rvs` are interpreted as random variable indices. If equal to 'names',
the the elements are interpreted as random variable names. If `None`,
then the value of `dist._rv_mode` is consulted.
int_outcomes : bool
If `True`, then the outcomes of the meet are relabeled as integers
instead of as the atoms of the induced sigma-algebra.
Returns
-------
d : ScalarDistribution
The distribution of the meet.
"""
meet_sa = meet_sigalg(dist, rvs, rv_mode)
d = dist_from_induced_sigalg(dist, meet_sa, int_outcomes)
return d
def insert_rv(dist, idx, sigalg):
"""
Returns a new distribution with a random variable inserted at index `idx`.
The random variable is constructed according to its induced sigma-algebra.
Parameters
----------
dist : Distribution
The distribution which defines the base sigma-algebra.
idx : int
The index at which to insert the random variable. To append, set `idx`
to be equal to -1 or dist.outcome_length().
sigalg : frozenset
The sigma-algebra induced by the random variable.
Returns
-------
d : Distribution
The new distribution.
"""
from itertools import chain
if idx == -1:
idx = dist.outcome_length()
if not 0 <= idx <= dist.outcome_length():
raise IndexError('Invalid insertion index.')
# Provide sane sorting of atoms
atoms = atom_set(sigalg)
atoms = [sorted(atom) for atom in atoms]
atoms.sort(key=quasilexico_key)
if dist._outcome_class == str:
# Then the labels for the new random variable must be strings.
from string import ascii_letters, digits
labels = (digits + ascii_letters)[:len(atoms)]
else:
labels = range(len(atoms))
# Create an index from outcomes to atoms.
atom_of = {}
for label, atom in zip(labels, atoms):
for outcome in atom:
atom_of[outcome] = label
if idx == dist.outcome_length():
def new_outcome_ctor(outcome, ctor=dist._outcome_ctor):
"""The end of the outcome"""
new_outcome = [outcome, [atom_of[outcome]]]
return ctor(chain.from_iterable(new_outcome))
elif idx == 0:
def new_outcome_ctor(outcome, ctor=dist._outcome_ctor):
"""The beginning of the outcome"""
new_outcome = [[atom_of[outcome]], outcome]
return ctor(chain.from_iterable(new_outcome))
else:
def new_outcome_ctor(outcome, ctor=dist._outcome_ctor):
"""In the middle of the outcome"""
new_outcome = [outcome[:idx], [atom_of[outcome]], outcome[idx:]]
return ctor(chain.from_iterable(new_outcome))
d = dit.modify_outcomes(dist, new_outcome_ctor)
return d
[docs]def insert_join(dist, idx, rvs, rv_mode=None):
"""
Returns a new distribution with the join inserted at index `idx`.
The join of the random variables in `rvs` is constructed and then inserted
into at index `idx`.
Parameters
----------
dist : Distribution
The distribution which defines the base sigma-algebra.
idx : int
The index at which to insert the join. To append the join, set `idx`
to be equal to -1 or dist.outcome_length().
rvs : list
A list of lists. Each list specifies a random variable to be
met with the other lists. Each random variable can defined as a
series of unique indexes. Multiple random variables can use the same
index. For example, [[0,1],[1,2]].
rv_mode : str, None
Specifies how to interpret the elements of `rvs`. Valid options are:
{'indices', 'names'}. If equal to 'indices', then the elements of
`rvs` are interpreted as random variable indices. If equal to 'names',
the the elements are interpreted as random variable names. If `None`,
then the value of `dist._rv_mode` is consulted.
Returns
-------
d : Distribution
The new distribution with the join at index `idx`.
"""
jsa = join_sigalg(dist, rvs, rv_mode)
d = insert_rv(dist, idx, jsa)
return d
[docs]def insert_meet(dist, idx, rvs, rv_mode=None):
"""
Returns a new distribution with the meet inserted at index `idx`.
The meet of the random variables in `rvs` is constructed and then inserted
into at index `idx`.
Parameters
----------
dist : Distribution
The distribution which defines the base sigma-algebra.
idx : int
The index at which to insert the meet. To append the meet, set `idx`
to be equal to -1 or dist.outcome_length().
rvs : list
A list of lists. Each list specifies a random variable to be
met with the other lists. Each random variable can defined as a
series of unique indexes. Multiple random variables can use the same
index. For example, [[0,1],[1,2]].
rv_mode : str, None
Specifies how to interpret the elements of `rvs`. Valid options are:
{'indices', 'names'}. If equal to 'indices', then the elements of
`rvs` are interpreted as random variable indices. If equal to 'names',
the the elements are interpreted as random variable names. If `None`,
then the value of `dist._rv_mode` is consulted.
Returns
-------
d : Distribution
The new distribution with the meet at index `idx`.
"""
msa = meet_sigalg(dist, rvs, rv_mode)
d = insert_rv(dist, idx, msa)
return d
```